Hepatitis D, E and G
Let's talk more about less common forms of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis D, E and G.
Hepatitis D, also known as "delta hepatitis," is a liver infection caused by the Hepatitis D virus (HDV). Hepatitis D is uncommon in the United States. Hepatitis D only occurs among people who are infected with the Hepatitis B virus (BHV) because HDV is an incomplete virus that requires the helper function of HBV to replicate. HDV can be an acute, short-term, infection or a long-term, chronic infection. Hepatitis D is transmitted through percutaneous or mucosal contact with infectious blood and can be acquired either as a coinfection with HBV or as superinfection in people with HBV infection. There is no vaccine for Hepatitis D, but it can be prevented in persons who are not already HBV-infected by Hepatitis B vaccination.
For training on hepatitis D serology, CDC offers an online training that covers the serology of hepatitis D and other types of viral hepatitis.
For more information on Hepatitis D you can visit http://www.hepDconnect.org.
Hepatitis E is a liver infection caused by the Hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E is a self-limited disease that does not result in chronic infection. While rare in the United States, Hepatitis E is common in many parts of the world. It is transmitted from ingestion of fecal matter, even in microscopic amounts, and is usually associated with contaminated water supply in countries with poor sanitation. There is currently no FDA-approved vaccine for Hepatitis E. Other resources available at https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hev/index.htm.
Hepatitis G is a newly discovered form of liver inflammation caused by hepatitis G virus (HGV), believed to be a distant relative of the hepatitis C virus. HGV, also called hepatitis GB virus, was first described early in 1996. Little is known about the frequency of HGV infection, the nature of the illness, or how to prevent it. What is known is that transfused blood containing HGV has caused some cases of hepatitis. For this reason, patients who require large amounts of blood or blood products are at risk of hepatitis G.Often patients with hepatitis G are infected at the same time by the hepatitis B or C virus, or both. In about three of every thousand patients with acute viral hepatitis, HGV is the only virus present. There is some indication that patients with hepatitis G may continue to carry the virus in their blood for many years, and so might be a source of infection in others.